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The scope of the paper is to give an up-to-date account of general features of a unique cultural phenomenon which is the South Indian Iron Age. The distribution, chronology, material cul- ture, funerary customs, including the typology of megaliths, and socio-economical issues are outlined.
The studies on the material culture of South Indian Iron Age communities revealed its huge complexity. This cultural phenomenon, which had originated around BC, prob- ably in the northern regions of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, and spread across the vast space of Indian subcontinent, amazes by its simultaneous diversity and uniformity. Ke y words: Iron Age, South India, megalithic, black and red ware Received: Introduction The Iron Age culture was for a long time known only through so called megalithic monuments.
From the earliest times people believed that monuments contained gold or some enigmatic ash which could convert any metal into gold. As a result, the monuments repeatedly fell victim to vandalism or served as a source of building material Nagaraja Rao , Now it is acknowledged that the megaliths form an in- tegral part of the Iron Age culture in South India and the study of the period is no longer focused exclusively on them.
A radical view states that the so-called megalithic complex does not form an independent cultural entity. First of all, the terminology has to be cleared. Previously there was a tendency to label the discussed period on the basis of the feature which is the most remarkable at first sight, namely megalithic burials. That is because the presence and abundance of iron implements in that cultural horizon is prevailing.
This cannot be said about megalithic tombs as according to the defi- nition it should be used only to describe the burials made up of large stone blocks. As we know, some graves, or even whole burial sites of that period, lack megalithic appendage not to mention habitation sites. Megalithism is perceived only as a burial custom which appeared in the age of iron and contin- ued in the subsequent early historic period.
The term megalithic cul- ture is used in the current paper only in the context of nomenclature applied by previous scholars.
The scope of the present paper is to give an up-to-date account of general features of a unique cultural phenomenon which is the South Indian Iron Age.
The distribution, chronology, material culture, fu- nerary customs, including the typology of megaliths, and socio-eco- nomical issues will be outlined.
The traits of the culture naturally reach beyond the present state borders for instance the Durg district of Chhattisgarh, where the ex- tensive megalithic site, Karkabhat, is situated Sharma , 21—24 , but the core area is formed by those five states. The division of the entire zone proposed by Leshnik , 45 comprises four regions: Thapar , The latter group is not affiliated with the Iron Age and constitutes a separate cultural phenomenon.
Generally, it can be said that the southern megaliths have the sepulchral charac- ter whilst the northern ones are rather commemorative and represent the living tradition Sankalia , The present paper will be dealing only with South Indian megaliths as they belong to a uniform cultural horizon. General data concern- ing site distribution can be traced in Tab.
It is obvious that in spite of a huge amount of exploration and excavation work the majority of the sites remain unrecognised. Table 1. Tabela 1. Excavated State Area Total no. It is because not all sites have well defined character and some of them reveal only traces of activity such as iron smelting or rock art sites.
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Area after http: Chronology There are many suggestions concerning the dates which should be given to the megalithic monuments of South India. According to a point of view presented by the most of scholars nowadays, they are not affili- ated with the Harappan culture. Even though there are features which might suggest some connection between them, such as the presence of urn burials or black and red ware in late- or post- Harappan levels at Lothal for instance , no succession can be proven.
The transition to the Iron Age in South India is a unique process on a global scale, and is definitely less recognized that the one in the north of India. There is no evidence of the fully developed Bronze Age, and what is more the sites in the extreme south Tamil Nadu are lacking chalcolithic layers as well Ramachandran , 43; Rangacharya , — Cer- tainly, the development of the Iron Age in the South is an extremely interesting matter and requires more attention of the scholars.
Table 2. Tabela 2. In the course of time, with more sites excavated and with radio- carbon dates available from the deposits Tab. Tabela 3. By then scholars were sure that megaliths belonged to the Iron Age.
They still were not sure when the Iron Age people started erecting megalithic tombs as a part of their culture. The evidence enabling to date the earliest occurrence of iron are firm, but the same cannot be said about megalithic graves, which yield less radiocarbon dates see Tab.
The comparative studies on white painted black and red ware allowed to date Tadakanahalli pit circles as contemporary to the Hal- lur overlap phase, which place them just at the beginning of the Iron Age culture Nagaraja Rao , 25—26, McIntosh propounded an important chronology.
Her stud- ies appear to be accurate, as she not only analysed artefacts, but also paid attention to grave morphology, funerary rites and geographical distribution. That complex view made it possible to notice patterns of development in each subperiod McIntosh , One of the recently produced chronologies Moorti would place the period between BC and BC with megalithic tradi- tion continuing in the early centuries of the Christian era.
It is pro- posed to divide it into two broad phases: Undoubtedly, scientific methods are the most prominent nowa- days. However, more traditional relative dating methods should not be put into oblivion. In many cases the dating of the later phases of the culture can be executed thanks to coins discovered in association with the deposit. Another facility in the dating process could be found in the presence of historical monuments.
A subsidiary stupa erected on a megalithic urn burial at Amaravati in the Guntur district is an interesting example. It is dated to the 2nd century BC, thus it assigns terminus ante quem for that grave Ramachandran , ; Gururaja Rao , A large number of habitation sites reveal overlap phases either with the previ- ous or later period. At Brahmagiri, Maski, Sangakallu and Hallur for instance the layers do not consist of purely Iron Age components, but those elements increase from the lower to the middle levels and begin to decrease upwards Nagaraju, Gururaja Rao , — Material culture Several attempts have been made to gather and categorize objects of material culture found in association with the Iron Age culture of South India.
Most of them are not particularly successful and necessary to mention, but the one proposed by Leshnik deserves a note as the most comprehensive. His work was based on analogies from Taxila and Arikamedu in the case of pottery.
It is a matter of discussion if those resemblances are accurate.
The materials from those sites do not fully cover the Iron Age period chronologically, and in the case of Tax- ila are too distant in space. However the typology prepared by Leshnik is still employed as nothing better has been created so far.
The framework of the division was based on categories of artefacts and goes as follows Leshnik , — Category I: Category II: Category III: Category V: Category VI: Category VII: The foregoing typology appears to be incomplete as since the time of its composition many new objects have been discovered. For in- stance there is no mention of stone objects such as dabbers, pestles, grinding stones or microlithic tools.
The biggest drawback, howev- er, is the inability to join the artefacts with the respective chrono- logical horizon. The dates given by the author 3rd century BC to 2nd century AD seem to be too late and do not reflect the full develop- ment of the Iron Age. That is because he based his conclusions on the materials from Taxila, moreover on the ones from only its upper levels. The excavation report provided by Marshall in was the only complete source for comparative studies in those days, but it gave a misleading picture of the material culture of the South Indi- an Iron Age.
When reworked and supple- mented it can be beneficial also for chronological studies McIntosh , — Several words should be said about pottery. There are basic ce- ramic wares occurring in association with the Iron Age in South India, namely the black and red ware, all-black ware, and red ware with or without slip. All the others, such as brown ware, coarse red ware or micaceous red ware, are local variations the latter peculiar to the Vidarbha region Ghosh a, They are of secondary importance and therefore have not been studied in detail.
Especial- ly black and red ware was an object of intensive research, which re- sulted in multiple papers Srivastava ; Singh The studies of the encountered shapes revealed that the most popular shapes in habitation deposits included: Basins, dishes and jars were especially frequent in the Vidarbha re- gion.
Karnataka yielded a considerable number of carinated bowls and globuar pots. Other shapes occur sporadically from site to site. In the burial context the overall frequency is almost alike: However, regional variations were little bit stronger.
Dishes, ring stands, conical vases and pyriform jars appear to be characteristic for Tamil Nadu burials. Spouted pots can be met in Karnataka. Basins frequently found in Vidarbha habitation almost do not occur in the grave context, which may indicate their strictly utilitarian function.
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Typology of megalithic burials Although the South Indian Iron Age culture displays a certain uni- formity in the burial character, a significant diversity exists in the mode of construction culminating in different types of megalithic burials.
The difficulty in creating an accurate typology lies in the variation between the surface indication and the excavated plan and content. For instance a cairn circle may contain a cist, urn, sarcophagus or even a simple pit burial. That is why each tomb should be in fact treated separately and definitely not classified only upon external traits.
Unfortunately, this simple rule is not followed in every case.
Even though categorizing megaliths can be misleading, some order had to be pursued. The first successful attempt to typologize South Indian megaliths was made by Krishnaswami , 35— The basic types he introduced are inherently applied till nowadays of course some ameliorations have been introduced in the light of increasing excavated evidences.
There is no scope for the present work to describe all of them in detail, however major types of megaliths Fig. Cist The term applies to a box-like construction whose sides are built of orthostatic slabs placed under the surface. The slabs forming the cist are arranged in a way which prevents one another from collapsing. Dolmenoid cist Fig. The floor may be also provided in a form of stone slabs. The orthostats and the capstones can be shaped either of undressed rough blocks or partly dressed flattish stones Gururaja Rao , The term dolmenoid cist can be used interchangeably with dolmen- like cist or cist-like dolmen, which makes it even more misleading.
It was applied in the case when the cist was half buried or the dolmen partially covered Rajan a, Their differentiation depends upon the degree of concealment in the ground. A cist has an underground chamber, a dolmenoid cist is partially covered, whereas a dolmen is fully raised from above the ground Sundara , ; Fukao , This classification can be highly confusing, because a simple geo- morphological process erosion or accumulation or human activity can change one type into another.
Pit burial It is the simplest type of burial. The deceased along with funerary assemblage was placed in a pit dug out specially for this purpose and filled with earth and cairn packing. There are instances when the pit is sealed by a huge capstone. Shallow pits are specific for the Vidarbha region Rao , At Brahma- giri 2,5 m deep pits were encountered. Four roughly trimmed granite slabs were found placed symmetrically on the floor of the pit to support the legs of a bier.
After some time bones of an individual were removed to a cist, which was the place of the final interment. This hypothesis is not quite convincing as bone fragments and considerable amount of grave goods were found in such pits, which denotes that those were actual graves.
Urn burial Fig. How- ever, they appear to be indigenous for Deccan during the neolithic- chalcolithic period. The hollow-legged urns are known for instance Fig.
Earthen pots were employed to store skeletal remains and funeral as- semblage and after deposition it was sealed by a lid. In some instances a cap stone and cairn packing were provided. Sarcophagus Fig.
The oblong terracotta receptacle, which is a sar- cophagus, is customarily provided with a convex lid, rows of legs at the bottom and often with a capstone. The zoomorphic sarcophagi are es- pecially intriguing. The ram-shaped example is known from Sankavar- am, the cow-shaped one was noted in Kerala and the elephant-shaped one in Perumbair Gururaja Rao, , Rao , 12 noticed that sarcophagi could be made of three types of raw material, namely: Rock-cut chamber Fig.
This type is peculiar to the Kochi and Malabar regions of Kerala. The general layout consists of an open well, rectangular or squarish, cut vertically down. Easy access is pro- vided by a flight of steps. One of the walls, opposite to the steps has an entrance sometimes with a recessed facade leading to a funerary chamber, which can be circular, semicircular or rectangular in shape.
The floor of the interior of a cave is invariably 30 to 60 cm lower than the floor of its outer court Sharma , 94—However, regional variations were little bit stronger. FUR rent —3-ruom unfurnlsbod house, mudni with sleeping iKirch. It is obvious that in spite of a huge amount of exploration and excavation work the majority of the sites remain unrecognised.
Besides, the pre-megalithic forms of the disposal of the dead were still cultivated Dikshit , And I think the fact that Hitler never put his name on any orders that led to the extermination of Jews is significant.